Can you imagine and see a time, when you drive down the road on a clear beautiful afternoon with your family? As you travel further, the weather begins to change and the sky darkens. You can feel and see and hear the difference. Your visibility worsens and deep, penetrating fog sets in. You slow down, uncertain about what is ahead. Could there be a car in front of you, or a cliff? Would you have time to react? It’s a scary feeling, right? A team without a clear vision for where they are going reacts in much the same way. They may slow down, feel anxious, or seek ways to get out of the situation. This is the reason that it is critical to inspire a shared vision for those you would lead. And yet, as critical as inspiring a shared vision is to a team’s performance, it is also the leadership practice that most leaders struggle with (Kouzes & Posner, 2006). We often study prolific leaders like Martin Luther King, Jr. or Steve Jobs and yet very little time is spent on how their vision came into existence. I submit that inspiring a shared vision is a craft that any craftsman can create with the right perspective.
Challenge the Status Quo
A colleague of mine, often reminds me that different isn’t always better, but better is always different. “You find vision by reaching for any available reason to change, grow, and improve(Clark, 1997).” Kouzes and Posner noted in their research that challenging the process is one of the five practices of exemplary leaders (Kouzes & Posner, 2007). It takes courage to challenge the status quo, because there are frequently vested interests that seek to maintain a business as usual approach.
“Leaders have to enlist others in a common vision (Kouzes & Posner, 2007).” For others to want to share in the vision and want to be inspired, the vision must be both exciting and possible.
Aspire to the Greatest Good
There is always a greater good. The greater good is that which serves the larger group and is inherently connected to a vision. A leader sits between his team and the greater good and has the role of aligning the aspirations of each individual to the greater good. To do that, a leader must navigate between the many levels of good and the aspirations of the team members. The greater the good, the more inspiring the vision is. For example, contrast the success of Extreme Makeover: Home Edition with that of the original show, Extreme Makeover. The original show focused on helping an individual with their physical appearance, whereas the Home Edition focuses on helping an entire family reestablish their lives. Which is still on the air?
The Language of Vision
In one sense, a vision can be described as an experience. How can you help people have a shared experience? The language of a vision will differ based on the representation systems of the team members. Some may be more apt to see a visual representation, while others will want to hear what the future will be like for them personally, and yet other may want to study the rationale behind the vision. You must understand your team and their language of value to help them experience the vision together.
Using the Timeline
Each of us has a timeline that extends far back to our first experiences and as far into the future as we wish to look. “When we gaze first into our past, we elongate our future (Kouzes & Posner, 2007).” By helping the team to first look to the past, we gain the value of perspective and their experiences.
Goal Setting is the Roadmap
As we have our teams envision the future timeline and see the achievement of the vision, key questions can set be used to create specific goals that measure both progress and results. As we move down the timeline, how will we know that progress is being made? What will it feel like and be like? What will be different? These clarifying questions can help solidify the definition of success and form those definitions into specific goals. We can then lay the goals across the timeline to form a roadmap.
“Getting people to accomplish something is much easier if they have the inspiration to do so (Clark, 1997).” Your passion is contagious. Your passion will tell your team that their effort will make a difference.
The ability to inspire a shared vision is within each of us. Like anything else, it is a skill to be honed through practice and use. Thomas Edison once famously said, “Genius is one percent inspiration and ninety-nine percent perspiration (“Edison Lecture Series,” 2010).” Inspiring a shared vision is about getting the inspiration right, so the perspiration creates the right results.
Clark, Don. (1997, 4/20/2010). Leading and Leadership Retrieved 3/19/2011, 2011, from http://www.nwlink.com/~donclark/leader/leadled.html
Edison Lecture Series. (2010). Retrieved 3/24/2011, 2011, from http://www.edisonlectureseries.org/
Kouzes, James M., & Posner, Barry Z. (2006). It’s Not Just the Leader’s Vision. In Frances Hesselbein, Marshall Goldsmith & Leader to Leader Institute. (Eds.), The leader of the future 2 : visions, strategies, and practices for the new era (1st ed., pp. 207-212). San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
Kouzes, James M., & Posner, Barry Z. (2007). The leadership challenge (4th ed.). San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.
In November 13, 1979, Ronald Reagan announced his candidacy for the presidency just nine days after the beginning of the Iranian hostage crisis and just four months after President Carter told the country that it suffered from a “crisis of the spirit” (Moss & Thomas, 2010, p. 195) and that people no longer had faith in the future (Moss & Thomas, 2010). In his speech, Reagan said, “A troubled and afflicted mankind looks to us, pleading for us to keep our rendezvous with destiny; that we will uphold the principles of self-reliance, self-discipline, morality, and—above all—responsible liberty for every individual that we will become that shining city on a hill” (Reagan, 1979). “To Carter’s malaise, Reagan brought a convergence of God and country that was perfectly worded and timed” (Domke & Coe, 2010, p. 51).
Known as the Great Communicator, Reagan created powerful imagery that repudiated Carter’s viewpoint and focused on themes of American renewal and America’s role as God’s chosen country to lead the world towards liberty and democracy (Domke & Coe, 2010). Reagan quoted John Winthrop, a Puritan leader who, in his sermon, A Model of Christian Charity extolled the Massachusetts Bay colonists to live and work based on their Christian ideals to create a successful colony, “For wee must consider that wee shall be as a citty upon a hill. The eies of all people are uppon us” (Morgan, 1965, p. 93). The irony of quoting John Winthrop, was that Winthrop thought democracy to be the most wicked form of government (Winthrop, 1864). Winthrop himself, was quoting Matthew 5:14 of the New Testament where in the Sermon on the Mount, Jesus told his flock that they must be living example of the glory of God, because, “A city on a hill cannot be hidden” (The Holy Bible : New international version, containing the Old Testament and the New Testament, 1978)
The link between God, His divine providence and American destiny has long been in the fabric of this country and was weaved into the notion of both manifest destiny and American exceptionalism. The idea of a god-ordained leadership role for the United States in world affairs has been utilized by many Presidents to justify our actions both at home and abroad throughout the course of United States history. “The sermon, a stream of words transporting ideas, has woven itself into four hundred years of national life. Words are just that, but even the nebulous power of rhetoric sets entire societies on their course” (Witham, 2007, p. 1). Religious oratory in politics has long provided divinely inspired purpose to the nation and has a long tradition that has had a monumental impact on our national course and discourse.
What set Reagan apart was not that his view of America’s role was somehow different from those who came before him; rather Reagan was the Great Communicator, sharing his optimistic vision for the future. He was able to inspire the nation at a time when it needed inspiration, and remind the people of the United States of their long tradition as a nation of destiny and hope. As to whether Reagan achieved his goal for the U.S., I believe he did; under Reagan the U.S. experienced a rebirth and once again had a vision for its place in the world. In his final statement to the nation, Reagan echoed his themes of renewal, destiny and God, “Those words and that destiny beckon to us still. We are asked to be guardians of a place to come to, a place to start again, a place to live in the dignity God meant for his children. May it ever be so” (Reagan, 1989).
Domke, D. S., & Coe, K. M. (2010). The God strategy : how religion became a political weapon in America (Updated ed.). New York: Oxford University Press.
The Holy Bible : New international version, containing the Old Testament and the New Testament. (1978). Grand Rapids: Zondervan Bible Publishers.
Morgan, E. S. (1965). Puritan political ideas, 1558-1794. Indianapolis: Bobbs-Merrill.
Moss, G., & Thomas, E. P. (2010). Moving on : the American people since 1945 (4th ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Education.
Reagan, R. (1979). Ronald Reagan’s Announcement for Presidential Candidacy Retrieved 4/7/2011, 2011, from http://www.reagan.utexas.edu/archives/reference/11.13.79.html
Reagan, R. (1989). Final Radio Address to the Nation Retrieved 4/8/2011, 2011, from http://www.reagan.utexas.edu/archives/reference/11.13.79.html
Winthrop, R. C. (1864). Life and letters of John Winthrop. Boston: Ticknor and Fields.
Witham, L. (2007). A city upon a hill : how sermons changed the course of American history (1st ed.). New York: HarperOne.
“The leader’s unique legacy is the creation of valued institutions that survive over time (Kouzes & Posner, 2007, pg. xvi).” Both Malcolm X and Martin Luther King, Jr. were leaders during a time of turmoil and social change. These leaders, together, and with the countless masses that supported them, transformed a generation, a people and a country. In his book, Bass describes transformational leaders as, “those who stimulate and inspire followers to both achieve extraordinary outcomes and, in the process, develop their own leadership capacity (2006, pg. 3).”
Kouzes and Posner, renowned transformational leadership scholars, suggest that there are five practices of exemplary leaders; they “model the way, inspire a shared vision, challenge the process, enable others to act, and encourage the heart (2007, pg. 14).” Both Malcolm X and King exhibited strong characteristics of the transformative leader. Both challenged the nation’s Jim Crow laws, both inspired the African-American people, and both modeled the way for their followers; Malcolm the model of a proud, educated, strong, Islamic black man and Martin the model of Christian beliefs; loving, charitable, faithful and tolerant. There were also some key differences, specifically in their vision for African-Americans.
“Malcolm X was a product of the northern, poor, black masses (Cone, 2009, pg.41).” Malcolm once famously commented, “All our experiences fuse into our personality…for me to wind up in prison was really just about inevitable (X, M., & Haley, A., 1999, pg. 378).” Malcolm’s vision was for Black Nationalism; he believed strongly in unity, self-respect, self-defense, self-love and separatism, hoping for a separate, free, black nation (Cone, 2009). He was a fiery and unapologetic speaker of the truth of the black experience in America.
Martin Luther King, Jr., was a well-educated, middle-class, devout Christian minister. His philosophy on the power of love and hope drew broadly from the Christian tradition, whereas his operational plan came from Gandhi (Cone, 2009). “He urged his people to accept their redemptive role by pursuing five objectives: self-respect, high moral standards, whole-hearted work, leadership and nonviolence (Cone, 2009, pg. 71).” King was an integrationist and believed that Negros future lie in America with equal rights and equal protection under the law.
While both men were great leaders, Martin Luther King Jr.’s leadership style was more effective. His vision for integration was both optimistic and inclusive as it had appeal for both black and white audiences. He indicated it was easy for him to be optimistic because of his childhood experiences (Cone, 2009). In his article, the Leadership Advantage, Warren Bennis writes, “every exemplary leader that I have met has what seems to be an unwarranted degree of optimism — and that helps generate the energy and commitment necessary to achieve results (1999).”
An angry boy came to see his Grandfather. The Grandfather told the boy that it was as if he had two wolves inside of him; one wolf that lives in harmony and has love and hope in its heart, and the other wolf that lives in anger and hate and they fight to dominate your spirit. Curious, the boy asks, “Which one will win?” His grandfather replied, “The one you feed.”
Bass, B. M., & Riggio, R. E. (2006). Transformational Leadership (2nd ed.). Mahwah, N.J. : L. Erlbaum Associates.
Bennis, W. (1999) The Leadership Advantage. Leader to Leader Institute. Retrieved March 18, 2011, from http://www.pfdf.org/knowledgecenter/journal.aspx?ArticleID=53
Cone, J. H. (2009). Martin & Malcolm & America: A Dream or A Nightmare (19. print. ed.). Maryknoll, NY: Orbis Books.
Kouzes, J. M., & Posner, B. Z. (2007). The Leadership Challenge (4th ed.). San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
X, M., & Haley, A. (1999). The Autobiography of Malcolm X. New York: Ballantine Books.